"The Cholesterol Conspiracy" Revised 2nd Edition

How Pharmaceutical Companies Continue to Hide the Truth About Cholesterol.

Includes the Newest Research Findings Showing the Effectiveness of Nutritional Supplements for the Prevention of Heart Disease and Stroke.

This audiobook is read by the author, Ladd R. McNamara, M.D.

Copies of the Cholestrol Conspiracy are available!

Audio Book and Paper Back versions are available at http://www.laddmcnamara.com/bookstore along with other books written by Dr. McNamara.

Ladd McNamara, M.D. (Photo)

Episode 19: Dr. Ladd McNamara: Conclusion and Specific Daily Supplement Considerations

In this episode Dr. Ladd McNamara provides concluding thoughts and some specific daily supplement considerations.

  • Chapter 39: Conclusion
  • Chapter 40: Specific Daily Supplement Considerations

Chapter Excerpts

According to Dr. Ladd McNamara, the best treatment to prevent heart disease and stroke is NOT to simply lower cholesterol with statin drugs as much as it is to PROTECT LDL cholesterol… NO MATTER the level… from OXIDATION. Dr. Ladd McNamara emphasizes that even among people with higher levels of cholesterol, those whose LDL cholesterol is NOT oxidized, along with a LOW homocysteine level (less than 6.5), will have a lower risk of heart disease and stroke than those that simply have a “normal” LDL cholesterol level (which IS oxidized).

Shall we risk serious and permanent side effects, including disease and possible death from statin drugs, or shall we enjoy all the positive benefits of nutrition, including longer life, less disease and no harm from the use of vitamins and minerals? Dr. Ladd McNamara states, “The choice is in our hands …literally!”

Episode 18: C Reactive Protein and Homocysteine

In this episode Dr. Ladd McNamara discusses how C Reactive Protein is predictive of the severity of active formation of atherosclerosis; and the importance of testing your homocysteine and CRP Levels.

  • Chapter 37: C Reactive Protein is Predictive of the Severity of Active Formation of Atherosclerosis
  • Chapter 38: Testing Your Homocysteine and CRP Levels

Chapter Excerpts

Accordingly, an elevated CRP level is an indirect indication of inflammation in the body and that atherosclerosis, including heart disease, is actively developing.

The greater the homocysteine level, the greater the oxidation of both LDL cholesterol and the arterial lining (endothelium). Dr. Ladd McNamara explains it: The greater the inflammation, the higher the CRP level.

However, using statin drugs to lower CRP when it can be lowered more effectively through exercise, proper diet, weight loss, and vitamins and minerals, without any health risks makes the non-pharmacological route much more attractive and wise.

Chapter References

  • 176: Guetta J, Fuselli J, Boissonnet C, Fairman E, et al. Pognostic value of C-reactive protein in diabetic patients with unstable angina. Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 41:346.
  • 177: Wang TJ, et al. C-reactive protein is associated with subclinical epicardial coronary calcification in men and women: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2002 Sep 3;106(10):1189-1191.
  • 178: Ziaris M, et al. C-reactive protein and multiple complex coronary artery plaques in patients with primary untstable angina. Atherosclerosis 2002 Oct;164(2):355.
  • 179: Pradhan AD, et al. Inflammatory biomakers, hormone replacement therapy, and incident coronary heart disease: propective analysis from the Women’s Health Initiative observational study. JAMA 2002 Aug 28;288(8):980-987.
  • 180: Ridker PM, et al. Inflammation, aspirin, and the risk of cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy men. NEJM 1997 Apr 3;336(14):973-979.
  • 181: Kaplan RC, Frishman WH. Systemic inflammation as a cardiovascular disease risk factor and as a potential target for drug therapy. Heart Dis 2001 Sep-Oct;3(5):326-332.
  • 182: Blake CJ, Ridker PM, Kuntz KM. Projected life-expectancy gains with statin therapy for individuals with elevated C-reactive protein levels. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002 Jul 3;40(1):49-55.
  • 183: Upritchard JE, Suterhland WH, Mann JI. Effect of supplementation with tomato juice, vitamin E, and vitamin C oxidation and products of inflammatory activity in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2000 Jun;23(6):733-738.
  • 184: Block G, Jensen C, Dietrich M, Norkus EP, Hudes M, Paker L. Plasma C-reactive protein concentrations in active and passive smokers: influence of antioxidant supplementation. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Apr;23(2):141-147.
  • 185: Devaraj S, Jialal I. Alpha tocopherol supplementation decreases serum C-reactive protein and monocyte interleukin-6 levels in normal volunteers and type 2 diabetic patients. Free Radic Biol Med 2000 Oct 15;29(8):790-792.
  • 186: Hertog MGS, et al. Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly study. Lancet 1993;342:1007-1011.
  • 187: Keli SO, et al. Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins, and incidence of stroke: the Zutphen study. Arch Intern Med 1996 Mar 25;156?6):637-642.
  • 188: Yoshizumi M, et al. Quercetin inhibits Shc- and phosphatidylinositol 3- kinase-mediated c-jun N-terminal kinase activation by angiotensin II in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Mol Pharmacol 2001 60:656-665.
  • 189: Pignatelli P, et al. The flavonoids quercetin and catechin synergistically inhibit platelet function by antagonizing the intracellular production of hydrogen peroxide. Am J Clin Nutr 2000 72:1150-1155.
  • 190: Koufaki M, et al. Novel potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation with protective effects against reperfusion arrhythmias. J Med Chem 2001 Nov 22;44(24):4300-4303.
  • 191: Munch G, Mayer S, Michaelis J, et al. Influence of advanced glycation end-products and AGE-ingivitors on nucleation-dependent polymerization of beta-amyloid peptide. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997 1360(1):17-29.
  • 192: Hipkiss A, Michaelis J, Syrris P. Non-enzymatic glycosylation of the dipeptide L-carnosine, a potential anti-protein-cross-linking agent. FEBS Lett. 1995 371(1):81-85.
  • 193: Brownson C, Hipkiss A. Carnosine reacts with a glycated protein. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 28(10):1564-1570.
  • 183: Upritchard JE, Suterhland WH, Mann JI. Effect of supplementation with tomato juice, vitamin E, and vitamin C oxidation and products of inflammatory activity in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2000 Jun;23(6):733-738.
  • 184: Block G, Jensen C, Dietrich M, Norkus EP, Hudes M, Paker L. Plasma C-reactive protein concentrations in active and passive smokers: influence of antioxidant supplementation. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Apr;23(2):141-147.
  • 194: Jialal I, Devaraj S. Inflammation and atherosclerosis: the value of the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein assay as a risk marker. Am J Clin Pathol 2001 Dec;116 Suppl:S108-115.
  • 195: Nestel P, et al. The n-3 fatty acids eiosapentaenoid acid and docosahexaenoic acid increase systemic arterial compliance in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2002 Aug;76(2):326-330.
  • 196: Morrison H, et al. Serum folate and risk of fatal coronary heart disease. JAMA 1996 Jun 26;275:1893-1896.
  • 197: Graham I, Daly L, Refsum H, et al. Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. The European Concerted Action Project. JAMA. 1997 277:1775-1781.
  • 198: McCully K. Homocysteine, folate, vitamin B6, and cardiovascular disease (Editorial). JAMA. 1998 279:392-393.
  • 199: Wald N, Watt H, Law M, Weir D, McPartlin J, Scott J. Homocysteine and ischemic heart disease: results of a prospective study with implications regarding prevention. Arch Intern Med. 1998 158:862-867.
  • 200: Nygard O, Nordrehaug J, Refsum H, et al. Plasma homocysteine levels and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. NEJM 1997 337:230-236.
  • 201: Luc G, Bard J, Juhan-Vague I, et al. C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, fibrinogen as predictors of coronary heart disease. The PRIME study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003 Jul 1;23(7):1255-1261.
  • 202: Ridker P, Brown N, Vaughan D, Harrison D, Mehta J. Established and emerging plasma biomarkers in the prediction of first atherothrombotic events. Circulation 2004 109: IV-6-IV-19.

Episode 17: High Cholesterol and Low Testosterone

In this episode Dr. Ladd McNamara answers the apparent dilemma “I’m on Antioxidants, But My Cholesterol is Still High!” and discusses how low free testosterone levels in men are associated with an increased risk of heart disease.

  • Chapter 34: “I’m on Antioxidants, But My Cholesterol is Still High!”
  • Chapter 35: Age and Arterial Calcifications
  • Chapter 36: Low Free Testosterone Levels in Men are Associated with an Increased Risk of Heart Disease

Chapter Excerpts

Dr. Ladd McNamara, “I knew it would be better if she had a lower LDL cholesterol level and took antioxidants, but I agreed with her about not going on the cholesterol-lowering drug.”
…To her relief, her level of oxidized LDL cholesterol was much lower than what is considered normal. It was better than “good.” Her percentage of oxidized LDL cholesterol was so low it amazed even me. Brenda was set free from the Cholesterol Conspiracy.

Calcium and magnesium imbalances lead to osteoporosis and calcium deposits in the arteries.

In a recent study in men’s health, doctors measuring the degree of coronary artery disease, diagnosed with angioplasty, found that even more important than cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, high blood pressure, and obesity, the major predictors for the severity of atherosclerosis turned out to be age, low levels of HDL cholesterol, and low levels of free testosterone.

 

Chapter References

  • 163: Chandalia M, Garg A, Lutjohann D, von Bergmann K, Grundy SM, Brinkley LJ. Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2000 May;342(19):1392-8.
  • 163: Lawrence F. Bielak, John A. Rumberger, Patrick F. Sheedy, II, Robert S. Schwartz, and Patricia A. Peyser. Probabilistic model for prediction of angiographically defined obstructive coronary artery disease using electron beam computed tomography calcium score strata. Circulation 2000 102: 380-385.
  • 164: O’Rourke R, Brundage B, Froelicher V, et al. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Expert Consensus Document on electron-beam computed tomography for the diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease. J Amer Coll Cardiol 2000 36(1):326-340.
  • 165: Howe A, Webster W. Warfarin exposure and calcification of the arterial system in the rat. Int J Exp Pathol 2000 Feb;81(1):51-56.
  • 166: Vermeer C, Schurgers L. A comprehensive review of vitamin K and vitamin K antagonists. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2000 Apr;14(2):339-353.
  • 167: Phillips GB, Pinkernell BH, Jing TY. Are major risk factors for myocardial infarction the major predictors of degree of coronary artery disease in men? Metabolism 2004 Mar;53(3):324-329.
  • 168: Dobrizycki S, Serwatka W, Nadlewski S, et al. An assessment of correlation between endogenous sex hormone levels and the extensiveness of coronary heart disease and the ejection fraction of the left ventricle in males. J Med Invest. 2003 Aug;50(3-4):162-169.
  • 169: Muller M, van den Beld AW, Bots ML, Grobbee DE, Lamberts SW, van der Schouw YT. Endogenous sex hormones and progression of carotid atherosclerosis in elderly men. Circulation 2004 May 4;109(17):2074-79.
  • 170: Dzugan SA, Smith RA. Hypercholesterolemia treatment: a new hypothesis or just an accident? Med Hypothesis. 2002 Dec;59(6):751-6.
  • 171: Dzugan SA, Smith RA. Broad spectrum restoration in natural steroid hormones as possible treatment for hypercholesterolemia. Bull Urg Rec Med. 2002;3(2):278-284.
  • 172: Chen C, et al. Endogenous sex hormones and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study nested within the carotene and retinal efficacy trial. Cancer Epidimeiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 Dec;12(12):1410-1416.
  • 173: Stattin P, Lumme S, Tenkanen L, et al. High levels of circulating testosterone are not associated with increased prostate cancer risk: a pooled prospective study. Int J Cancer. 2004 Jan 20;108(3):418-424.
  • 174: Rhoden EL, Morgentaler A. Testosterone replacement therapy in hypgonadal men at high risk for prostate cancer: results of 1 year of treatment in men with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. J Urol. 2003 Dec;170(6 Pt 1):2348-2351.
  • 175: Raivio T, Santti H, Schatzl G, et al. Reduced circulating androgen bioactivity in patients with prostate cancer. Prostate. 2003 May 15;55(3):194-198.

Episode 16: The “Best” Way to Reduce the Risk of Cardiac Death: Part 3

In this episode Dr. Ladd McNamara discusses vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and essential fatty acids: a real an alternative way to reduce the risk of death from heart disease and stroke.

  • Chapter 33: Vitamins, Minerals, Antioxidants, and Essential Fatty Acids: The Real Way to Reduce the Risk of Death from Heart Disease and Stroke – Part 3

Chapter Excerpts by Ladd McNamara, M.D.

Alpha-Lipoic Acid works in many ways to protect against disease and maintain health. ALA protects LDL cholesterol from oxidation, reduces the inflammatory reaction of the arteries, along with magnesium helps to maintain a health blood pressure. Alpha-Lipoic Acid works together with co-enzyme Q10 in the metabolism of sugar into energy.

According to Dr. Ladd McNamara, Olive Oil and Olive Oil Extracts contain polyphenol antioxidants that are in part responsible for the benefits of the Mediterranean diet. Studies have shown those who consume more of these antioxidant compounds have a greatly reduced risk of heart disease and cancer, let alone a prolongation of life.

Fish oil supplements (containing DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) have been shown to decrease the risk of cardiac death greater than the use of statin drugs, …and without any toxic side-effects. Thus, more evidence of the Cholesterol Conspiracy.

In addition to magnesium supplementation, researchers are finding promise in the higher rates of survival after heart attacks when high-dose antioxidants are commenced shortly after such an attack.

Diets high in both soluble and insoluble fiber help reduce blood lipid levels, cholesterol, and insulin intolerance.

Ladd McNamara, M.D.

Chapter References by Ladd McNamara, M.D.

  • 130: Zhang WJ, Frei B. Alpha-lipoic acid inhibits TNF-alpha-induced NFkappa B activation and adhesion molecule expression in human aortic endothelial cells. FASEB J 2001 Nov;15(13):2423-2432.
  • 131: El Midaoui A, de Champlain J. Prevention of hypertension, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress by alpha-lipoic acid. Hypertension 2002 Feb;39(2):303-307.
  • 132: Takaoka M, et al. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on deoxycorticos-terone acetate-salt-induced hypertension in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2001 Jul;20;424(2):121-129.
  • 133: Koufaki M, et al. Novel potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation with protective effects against reperfusion arrhythmias. J Med Chem 2001 Nov 22;44(24):4300-4303.
  • 134: Gonzalez-Perez O, Gonzalez-Castaneda R, Huerta M, et al. Beneficial effects of -lipoic acid plus vitamin E on neurological deficit, reactive gliosis and neuronal remodeling in the penumbra of the ischemic rat brain. Neuroscience Letters, 2002 March 15, 321(5);1:100-104.
  • 135: Chen C et al. Endogenous sex hormones and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study nested within the carotene and retinal efficacy trial. Cancer Epidimeiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 Dec;12(12):1410-1416.
  • 136: Upritchard J, Suterhland W, Mann J. Effect of supplementation with tomato juice, vitamin E, and vitamin C oxidation and products of inflammatory activity in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2000 Jun;23(6):733-738.
  • 137: Decker E, et al. Inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation by carnosine histidine. J Agric Food Chem 2001 Jan;49(1):511-516.
  • 138: Owen RW, et al. Olive oil consumption and health: the possible role of antioxidants. Lancet Oncol, 2000, Oct., 1:107-12.
  • 139: Visioli F, et al. Antioxidant and other biological activities of phenols from olives and olive oil. Med Res Rev. 2002 Jan;22(1):65-75.
  • 140: Simopoulos Ap. The traditional diet of Greece and cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2004 Jun;13(3):219-30.
  • 141: Visioli F., et al. Low density lipoprotein oxidation is inhibited in vitro by olive oil constituents. Atherosclerosis. 1995 Sep;117(1):25-32.
  • 142: Cullinen K. Olive oil in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Med Health R.I. 2006 Mar;89(3):113.
  • 143: Nagyova A, et al. Effects of dietary extra virgin olive oil on serum lipid resistance to oxidation and fatty acid composition in elderly lipidemic patients. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2003;104(7-8):218-21.
  • 144: Martinez-Gonzalez MA. The SUN cohort study (Seguimiento University of Navarra). Public Health Nutr. 2006 Feb;9(1A):127-31.
  • 145: Bogani P., et al. Postprandial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of extra virgin olive oil. Atherosclerosis. 2006 Feb 17; [Epub ahead of print].
  • 146: Fito M., et al. Antioxidant effect of virgin olive oil in patients with stable coronary heart disease: a randomized, crossover, controlled, clinical trial. Atherosclerosis. 2005 Jul;181(1):149-58.
  • 147: Fernandez-Jarne E., et al. Risk of first non-fatal myocardial infarction negatively associated with olive oil consumption: a case-control study in Spain. Int J Epidemiol. 2002, Apr;31(2):474-80.
  • 148: Visioli F., Galli C. Antiatherogenic components of olive oil. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2001. Jan;3(1):64-7.
  • 149: Visioli F., et al. Low density lipoprotein oxidation is inhibited in vitro by olive oil constituents. Atherosclerosis. 1995 Sep;117(1):25-32.
  • 150: Nestel P, et al. The n-3 fatty acids eiosapentaenoid acid and docosahexaenoic acid increase systemic arterial compliance in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2002 Aug;76(2):326-330.
  • 151: McLennan O. Myocardial membrane fatty acids and the antiarrhythmic actions of dietary fish oil in animal models. Lipids 2001 36 Suppl: S111-S114.
  • 152: Marchioli R, Barzi F, Bomba E, et al. Early protection against sudden death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids after myocardial infarction: time-course analysis of the results of the Gruppo Italian per lo Studio dells Soprvvivenza nell’Infarto Micardico (GISSI)-Prevenzione. Circulation. 2002 Apr 23;105:1897-1903.
  • 56: Rosenson RS. Statins in atherosclerosis: lipid-lowering agents with antioxidant capabilities. Atherosclerosis. 2004. Mar;173(1):1-12.
  • 57: Tsimikas S, et al. High-dose atorvastatin reduces total plasma levels of oxidized phospholipids and immune complexes present on apolipoprotein B-100 in patients with acute coronary syndromes in the MIRACL trial. Circulation. 2004 Sep 14;110(11):1406-12.
  • 152: Marchioli R, Barzi F, Bomba E, et al. Early protection against sudden death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids after myocardial infarction: time-course analysis of the results of the Gruppo Italian per lo Studio dells Soprvvivenza nell’Infarto Micardico (GISSI)-Prevenzione. Circulation. 2002 Apr 23;105:1897-1903.
  • 154: Bernier M, et al. Reperfusion-induced arrhythmias and oxygen-derived free radicals. Circulation Res. 1986 58:331-340.
  • 203: Studer M, et al. Effect of different antilipidemic agents and diets on mortality: a systematic review. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2005 Apr 11;165(7):725-30.
  • 153: Grech E, et. al. Reperfusion injury after acute myocardial infarction. Brit Med J 1995 310:477-478.
  • 154: Bernier M, et al. Reperfusion-induced arrhythmias and oxygen-derived free radicals. Circulation Res. 1986 58:331-340.
  • 155: Chamiec T, et al. Effects of antioxidant vitamins C and E on signalaveraged electrocardiogram in acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1996 77:277-281.
  • 156: Dzizinskii AA, et al. Effects of antioxidants and membrane protectors on clinical course and hemodynamics of patients of myocardial infarct. Ross Med Zh. 1992 1:32-34.
  • 157: Kramer J, et al. Magnesium-deficiency potentiates free radical production associated with post-ischemic injury to rat hearts: vitamin E affords protection. Free Rad Bio Med. 1994 16:6:713-723.
  • 158: Altura BM. Cardiovascular risk factors and magnesium: relationships to atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease and hypertension. magnesium and trace elements. Switzerland, S. Karger AG, Basel, 1991-92;10:182-192.
  • 159: Van Leer EM, et al. Dietary calcium, potassium, magnesium and blood pressure in the Netherlands. Internation J Epidem. 1995 24:6:1117-23.
  • 160: Bernier M, et al. Reperfusion-induced arrhythmias and oxygen-derived free radicals. Circulation Res. 1986 58:331-340.
  • 161: Chamiec T, et al. Effects of antioxidant vitamins C and E on signalaveraged electrocardiogram in acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1996 77:277-281.
  • 162: Dzizinskii AA, et al. Effects of antioxidants and membrane protectors on clinical course and hemodynamics of patients of myocardial infarct. Ross Med Zh. 1992 1:32-34.

Episode 15: The “Best” Way to Reduce the Risk of Cardiac Death: Part 2

In this episode Dr. Ladd McNamara discusses vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and essential fatty acids: a real an alternative way to reduce the risk of death from heart disease and stroke.

  • Chapter 33: Vitamins, Minerals, Antioxidants, and Essential Fatty Acids: The Real Way to Reduce the Risk of Death from Heart Disease and Stroke – Part 2

Chapter Excerpts

Studies using levels of vitamin C, well above 700 mg per day have shown a decreased risk of diseases, including the risk of heart disease.

Bioflavanoids such as grape seed extract, resveratrol, & quercetin all have shown remarkable results in reducing the risk of heart disease and cancers. They work synergistically, as well as with other antioxidants to reduce the risk of disease.

Dr. Ladd McNamara believes that L-carnosine may slow down the aging process, and protect the brain, skin, and arteries from damage. Furthermore, L-carnosine helps the heart to contract more effectively through enhancing the use of calcium.

Chapter References

  • 95: Mehra M, et al. Prevention of atherosclerosis. Postgraduate Med. 1995 98:1:175-182.
  • 96: Hoffman RM, et al. Antioxidants and the prevention of coronary heart disease. Arch Int Med. 1995 155:241-244.
  • 97: Morrison H, et al. Serum folate and risk of fatal coronary heart disease. J Am Med Assoc. 1996 275:24:1893-1896.
  • 98: Chasan-Taber L, et al. A prospective study of folate and vitamin B-6 and risk of myocardial infarction in U.S. physicians. J Am Coll Nutri. 1996 15:2:136-143.
  • 99: Levine GN, et al. Ascorbic acid reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 1996 93:6:1107-1113.
  • 100: Gatto LM, et al. Ascorbic acid induces a favorable lipoprotein profile in women. J Am Coll Nutri. 1996 15:2:154-158.
  • 101: Hallfrisch J, et al. High plasma vitamin c associated with high plasma HDL (1) – and HDL (2) cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutri. 1994 60:100-105.
  • 102: Osganian S, Stampfer M, Rimm E, Spiegelman D, et al. Vitamin C and risk of coronary heart disease in women. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 42:246-252.
  • 103: Rifici V, Khachadurian A. Dietary supplementation with vitamins C and E inhibits in-vitro oxidation of lipoproteins. J Am Coll Nutri. 1993 12:6:6331-6337.
  • 104: Gaziano J. Antioxidant vitamins and coronary artery disease risk. Am J Med. 1994 97:3A-18S-3A-21S.
  • 105: Lagrue G, et al. A study of the effects of procyanidol oligomers on capillary resistance in hypertension and in certain nephropathies. Sem Hop Paris. 1981 57:1399-1401.
  • 106: Detre A, et al. Studies on vascular permeability in hypertension: action of anthocyanosides. Clin Physiol Biochem. 1986 4:143-149.
  • 107: Meunier MT, et al. Free-radical scavenger activity of procyanidolic oligomers and anthocyanosides with respect to superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation. Plant Medphytother. 1989 4:267-274.
  • 108: Tixier J, et al. Evidence by in vivo and in vitro studies that binding of pycnogenols to elastin affects its rate of degradation by elastases. Biochem Parmacol. 1984 33:3933-3939.
  • 109: Facino R, et al. Free-radical scavenging action and anti-enzyme activities of procyanidines from vitis vinifera; a mechanism for their capillary protective action. Arzneimittel-Forschung Drug Research. 1994 44(1):5:592-601.
  • 110: Dartenuc JY, et al. Capillary resistance in the geriatric: study of a micro-angioprotector. Bordeaux Medicale. 1985 13:903.
  • 111: Kuhnau J. The flavonoids, a class of semi-essential food components: their role in human nutrition. World Rev Nutr Diet. 1976 24:117-191.
  • 112: Gabor M. Pharmacologic effects of flavonoids on blood vessels. Angiologica, 1972 9:355-374.
  • 113: Knekt P, et al. Flavonoid intake and coronary mortality in finland: a cohort study. Brit Med J. 1996 312:478-481.
  • 114: Stephens N, et al. Randomized Controlled Trial of Vitamin E in Patients with Coronary Disease: Cambridge Heart Anti-Oxidant Study (CHAOS). The Lancet. 1996 347:781-786.
  • 115: Niki E, et al. Interaction among vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta carotene. Am J Clin Nutri. 1995 62(suppl):1322S-1326S.
  • 116: Morrison H, et al. Serum folate and risk of fatal coronary heart disease. J Am Med Assoc. 1996 275:24:1893-1896.
  • 117: Carr A, Frei B. Toward a new recommended dietary allowance for vitamin C based on antioxidant and health effects in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 69(6):1086-1107.
  • 118: Enstrom J. Counterpoint–vitamin C and mortality. Nutr Today. 1993 28:28-32.
  • 119: Osganian S, Stampfer M, Rimm E, et al. Vitamin C and risk of coronary heart disease in women. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 42(2):246-252.
  • 120: Keli S, et al. Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins, and incidence of stroke: the Zutphen study. Arch Intern Med 1996 Mar 25;156?6):637-642.
  • 121: Duarte J, et al. Antihypertensive effects of the flavonoids quercetin in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Br J Pharmacol 2001 133:117-24.
  • 122: Maron D, Lu G, Cai N, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effect of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract. A randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163:1448-1453.
  • 123: Preston JE, Hipkiss AR, Himsworth DT, et al. Toxic effects of betaamyloid (25-35) on immortalized rat brain endothelial cell: protection by carnosine, homocarnosine and beta-alamine. Neurosci Lett. 1998 242(2):1-0-108.
  • 124: Stadman ER. Protein oxidation and aging. Science. 1992 257(5074):1220-1224.
  • 125: Munch G, Schinzel R, Loske C, et al. Alzheimer’s disease – synergistic effects of glucose deficit, oxidative stress and advanced glycation endproducts. Journal of Neural Transmission. 1998 105(4-5):439-461.
  • 126: Bierhaus A, Hofmann MA, Ziegler R, et al. AGEs and their interaction with AGE-receptors in vascular disease and diabetes mellitus. I. The AGE Concept. Cardiovascular Research. 1998 37(3)586-600.
  • 127: McFarland GA, Holliday R. Retardation of the senescence of cultured human diploid fibroblasts by carnosine. Exp Cell Res. 1994 212(2):167-175.
  • 128: Zaloga GP, Roberts PR, Black KW. Carnosine is a novel peptide modulator of intracellular calcium and contractility in cardiac cells. Am J Physiol 1997 272(1 Pt 2):H462-468.
  • 129: Roberts PR, Zaloga GP. Cardiovascular effects of carnosine. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2000 Jul;65(7):856-861.

Episode 14: The “Best” Way to Reduce the Risk of Cardiac Death: Part 1

In this episode Dr. Ladd McNamara discusses vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and essential fatty acids: a real an alternative way to reduce the risk of death from heart disease and stroke.

  • Chapter 33: Vitamins, Minerals, Antioxidants, and Essential Fatty Acids: The Real Way to Reduce the Risk of Death from Heart Disease and Stroke – Part 1

Chapter Excerpts

The answer to lowering the risk of arteriosclerosis, heart disease and stroke is to reduce the oxidative damage to the LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and the arterial lining so that plaque does not form.

The Cholesterol Conspiracy is about the makers of statin drugs hiding the truth that antioxidants work better than the statin drugs to reduce the risk of cardiac death. Antioxidants appear to be much more effective in reducing the risk of death from heart disease than current treatments using aspirin or cholesterol-lowering drugs combined.

There is a balance of D-alpha tocopherol and gamma tocopherol that is required to protect the fat and the protein components, respectively, or LDL cholesterol from oxidation. LDL that is not oxidized does not stick to the arterial walls.

 

Chapter References

  • 85: Aviram M. HDL–associated paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and dietaryantioxidants attenuate lipoprotein oxidation, macrophage foam cells formation and atherosclerosis development. Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb. 2006;35(1-2):146-51.
  • 86: Hertog M, Feskens E, Hollman P, Katan M, Kromhout D. Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly study. Lancet 1993 Oct 23;342(8878):1007-1011.
  • 87: Street D, et al. A population based case control study of the association of serum antioxidants and myocardial infarction. Am J Epidemiol. 1991 134:719-720.
  • 88: Steinberg D, et al. Antioxidants in the prevention of human atherosclerosis. Circulation. 1992 85:6:2338-2343.
  • 89: Gey K, et al. Inverse correlation between plasma vitamin E and mortality from ischemic heart disease in cross-cultural epidemiology. Am J Clin Nutri. 1991 53:326S-334S.
  • 90: Stampfer M, et al. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women. New Engl J Med. 1993 328:1444-1449.
  • 91: Rimm E, Stampfer M, et al. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary artery disease in men. New Engl J Med. 1993 328:1450-1456.
  • 92: Munteanu, A. et al. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of vitamin E – Myth or reality? J Cell Mol Med., 2004, Jan-Mar;8(1):59-76.
  • 93: I-Min Lee, et al. Vitamin E in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer. JAMA. 2005, Vol. 294, 56-65.
  • 94: Losonczy K, et al. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplement use and risk of all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality in older persons: the established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly. Am J Clin Nutri. 1996 64:190-196.

 

Episode 13: LDL Cholesterol and Diabetes by Ladd McNamara, M.D.

In this episode Dr. Ladd McNamara discusses The Real Importance of LDL Cholesterol and The Role of Diabetes and High Blood Sugar in the Development of Coronary Artery Disease

  • Chapter 31: The Importance of LDL Cholesterol
  • Chapter 32: The Role of Diabetes and High Blood Sugar in the Development of Coronary Artery Disease

Chapter Excerpts

Evidence supports the theory that when a person’s total cholesterol drops below 160, the immune system is weakened. Statin drugs, i.e., cholesterol-lowering drugs, are known to suppress the immune system.

Obesity leads to diabetes through oxidation of insulin receptors, and along with the oxidation of lipids (including cholesterol) and inflammation of the arterial wall leads to heart disease, stroke, and eventually death.

Chapter References

  • 74: Rauchhaus M, Clark A, Doehner W, Davos C, et al. The relationship between cholesterol and survival in patients with chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Dec 3; 42(11):1933-1940.
  • 75: Fuller C, Jialal I, et al. rrr-alpha-tocopherol acetate supplementation at pharmacologic doses decreases low-density-lipoprotein oxidative susceptibility but not protein glycation in patients with diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutri. 1996 63:753-759.
  • 76: Somogyi A, et al. Hypothetical connection between diabetes mellitus and free radical reactions in arteriosclerosis. Orvosi Hetilap [Hungarian] 1994 135:(33):1815-1818.
  • 77: Jialal I. Effect of combined supplementation with alpha-tocopherol ascorbate and beta-carotene on low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Circulation. 1993 88:2780-2786.
  • 78: Munch G, Mayer S, Michaelis J, et al. Influence of advanced glycation end-products and AGE-ingivitors on nucleation-dependent polymerization of beta-amyloid peptide. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997 1360(1):17-29.
  • 79: Hipkiss A, Michaelis J, Syrris P. Non-enzymatic glycosylation of the dipeptide L-carnosine, a potential anti-protein-cross-linking agent. FEBS Lett. 1995 371(1):81-85.
  • 80: Brownson C, Hipkiss A. Carnosine reacts with a glycated protein. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 28(10):1564-1570.
  • 81: Yamano T, et al. Effect of L-carnosine on the hyperglycemia caused by intracranial injection of 2-deoxy-D-glucose in rats. Neurosci Lett 2001 Nov 2;313(1-2):78-82.
  • 82: Heitzer T, et al. Beneficial effects of alpha-lipoic acid and ascorbic acid on endothelium-dependent, nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation in diabetic patients: relation to parameters of oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 2001 Jul 1;31(1):53-61.
  • 83: El Midaoui A, de Champlain J. Prevention of hypertension, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress by alpha-lipoic acid. Hypertension 2002 Feb;39(2):303-307.
  • 84: Takaoka M, et al. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2001 Jul;20;424(2):121-129.

Episode 12: Antioxidant Supplements and Statin Drugs

In this episode Dr. Ladd McNamara discusses The Combination of Antioxidant Supplements and Statin Drugs

  • Chapter 30: The Combination of Antioxidant Supplements and Statin Drugs

Chapter Excerpts

According to Dr. Ladd McNamara, the most significant risk factor for heart disease and stroke is not the level of LDL cholesterol, but the oxidation of LDL cholesterol, homocysteine and inflammation of arterial walls. If the oxidized LDL cholesterol, homocysteine and the C reactive protein had been measured in the study, the antioxidant use would most surely have shown a protective effect.

Do not be fooled by a study here or there that shows that “antioxidants are bad” because of the changes in cholesterol levels. It is only important to the pharmaceutical industry that wants to scare you from taking vitamins and minerals…

Chapter References

  • 71: Brown B, Zhao X, Chait A, et al. Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. N Engl J Med. 2001 345(22):1583-1592.
  • 72: Collins R, Peto R, Armitage J. The MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study: preliminary results. Int J Clin Pract. 2002 56(1):53-56.
  • 73: Manuel-Y-Keenoy B, Vinckx M, Vertommen J, et al. Impact of Vitamin E supplementation on lipoprotein peroxidation and composition in Type 1 diabetic patients treated with Atorvastatin. Atherosclerosis 2004 Aug; 175(2):369-76.

Episode 11: Vitamins and Statin Drugs

In this episode Dr. Ladd McNamara discusses vitamins verses statin drugs, and asks, “Which Makes More Sense?”

  • Chapter 28: Which Makes More Sense?
  • Chapter 29: Adding Vitamins to Statin Drugs

Chapter Excerpts

Medications, even taken the way they’re prescribed, are the third leading cause of death in the United States after cardiovascular disease and cancer. Over 100,000 people die every year in the United States from taking prescription medications.

According to Dr. Ladd McNamara, the drug manufacturers will never admit that it is the antioxidants that reduce disease and death. In order to make money, the industry needs to sell you patented drugs, …not convince you that you should be taking vitamins and minerals.

Chapter References

  • 56: Rosenson RS. Statins in atherosclerosis: lipid-lowering agents with antioxidant capabilities. Atherosclerosis. 2004. Mar;173(1):1-12.
  • 57: Tsimikas S, et al. High-dose atorvastatin reduces total plasma levels of oxidized phospholipids and immune complexes present on apolipoprotein B-100 in patients with acute coronary syndromes in the MIRACL trial. Circulation. 2004 Sep 14;110(11):1406-12.
  • 58: Sparks DL., et al. Statin therapy in Alzheimer’s disease. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl. 2006;185:78-86.
  • 59: Wolozin B., et al. Re-assessing the relationship between cholesterol, statins and Alzheimer’s disease. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl. 2006;185:63-70.
  • 60: Nunomura A, et al. Involvement of oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2006. Jul;65(7):631-41.
  • 61: Harman D. Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis: role of aging. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2006 May;1067:454-60.
  • 62: Moreira PI, et al. Therapeutic options in Alzheimer’s disease. Expert Rev Neurother. 2006 Jun;6(6):897-910.
  • 63: Ono K., et al. Anti-amyloidogenic effects of antioxidants: implications for the prevention and therapeutics of Alzheimer’s disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Jun;1762(6):575-86.
  • 64: Montiel T, et al. Role of oxidative stress on beta-amyloid neurotoxicity elicited during impairment of energy metabolism in the hippocampus: Protection by antioxidants. Exp Neurol. 2006 Apr 18; [Epub ahead of print].
  • 65: Ono K, Yamada M. Antioxidant compounds have potent antifibrillogenic and fibril-destabilizing effects for alpha-synuclein fibrils in vitro. J Neurochem. 2006 Apr;97(1):105-15. Epub 2006 Mar 8.
  • 66: Hajieva P, Behl C. Antioxidants as a potential therapy against age-related neurodegenerative diseases: amyloid Beta toxicity and Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2006;12(6):699-704.
  • 38: Langsjoen P, Langsjoen A. The clinical use of HMG CoA-reductase inhibitors and the associated depletion of coenzyme Q10. A review of animal and human publications. Biofactors. 2003 18(1-4):101-111.
  • 67: Passi S, Stancato A, Aleo E, Dmitrieva A, Littarru GP. Statins lower plasma and lymphocyte ugiquinol/ubiqinone without affecting other antioxidants and PUFA. Biofactors 2003 18(1-4):113-124.
  • 68: Mortensen S, Leth A, Agner E, Rohde M. Dose-related decrease of serum coenzyme Q10 during treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Mol Aspects Med. 1997 18(suppl):S137-S144.
  • 69: Folkers K, Langsjoen P, Willis R, et al. Lovastatin decreases coenzyme Q10 levels in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1990 Nov; 87(22):8931-8934.
  • 70: Quiles J, Farquharson A, Ramirez-Tortosa M, et al. Coenzyme Q10 differentially moderates phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathionate peroxidase gene expression and free radicals production in malignant and non-malignant prostate cancer. Biofactors 2003 18(1-4):265-270.

Episode 10: Statin Drugs and their Effects (Part Two)

In this episode Dr. Ladd McNamara discusses more of the side effects of the usage of Cholesterol-Lowering Statin Drugs.

  • Chapter 25: Statin Drugs May Cause Depression and Possibly Suicide
  • Chapter 26: Statin Drugs Impair Memory and the Ability to Think
  • Chapter 27: Statin Drugs may Cause Cancer

Chapter Excerpts

Fifteen percent of those taking statin drugs develop some cognitive side effects.

Dr. Ladd McNamara is concerned that the pharmaceutical industry denies that statin drugs can cause amnesia; yet in many of their own studies, memory loss was reported.

Over 5 years, of the approximately 250 women taking Lipitor®, there were 12 new cases of breast cancers, compared to one new case among the placebo group. Certainly not proof that statin drugs cause breast cancer, but a 1500% increase risk of breast cancer is enough”smoke” to be worried about a fire.

Because Co-Q10 levels are decreased by statin drugs, it is easy for Dr. Ladd McNamara to predict that we will see an increased risk of prostate and breast cancer as a result.

Chapter References

  • 43: King D, Wilburn A, Wofford M, et al. Cognitive impairment associated with atorvastatin and simvastatin. Pharmacotherapy 2003 Dec; 23(12):1663-1667.
  • 44: Muldoon M, Barger S, Ryan C, Flory J, et al. Effects of lovastatin on cognitive function and psychological well-being. Am J Med. 2000 May; 108(7):538-546.
  • 45: Eleanor Laise. The Lipitor Dilemma, Smart Money: The Wall Street Journal Magazine of Personal Business, November 2003.
  • 46: Duane Graveline, MD., Lipitor: Thief of Memory, 2004, www.buybooksontheweb.com.
  • 47: Lopena O, Pharm D, Pfizer, Inc., written communication, 2002. Quoted in an email communication from Duane Graveline, spacedoc@webtv.net.
  • 48: Leung, B, Sattar N, Crilly A, et al. A novel anti-inflammatory role for simvastatin in inflammatory arthritis. J Immunol 2003 170:1524-1530.
  • 49: Palinski, W, et al. Immunomodulation: a new role for statins? Nature Medicine, 2000 Dec 6(12):1311-1312.
  • 50: Newman T, Hulley S. Carcinogenicity of lipid-lowering drugs. JAMA 1996 Jan 3; 275(1):55-60.
  • 51: Folkers K, et al. Activities of Vitamin Q10 in animal models and a serious deficiency in patients with cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 234(2):296-299.
  • 52: Lockwood K, Moesgaard S, Yamamoto T, Folkers K. Progress on therapy of breast cancer with vitamin Q10 and the regression of metastases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1995 Jul 6; 212(1):172-7.
  • 53: Sacks F, Pfeffer M, Moye L, et al. The effect of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. Cholesterol and Recurrent Events Trial investigators. N Engl J Med. 1996 Oct 3; 335(14):1001-1009.
  • 54: Boudreau D, Gardner J, Malone K, et al. The association between 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl co-enzyme A inhibitor use and breast carcinoma risk among postmenopausal women: a case-control study. Cancer 2004 Jun 1; 100(11):2308-2316.
  • 55: Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2002 Jul 6; 360(9326):7-22.